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Euromastr In 1974 I took Ruth to Europe.  It was her first time there, and we went Euromast_Ruth Ruth in the Euromast view_from_Euromast A view from Euromast Cologne_Cathedral Cathedral at Cologne, one of the best-known architectural monuments in Germany and has been Cologne's most famous landmark since its completion in the late 19th century. The cathedral is under the administration of the Roman Catholic Church and is the seat of the Archbishop of Cologne. Cologne Cathedral is the church with the largest facade (the west or main facade with the twin towers) and remains the second-tallest Gothic structure in the world; only the steeple of the Ulm Münster is higher. [Wikipedia] bridge_at_Remagen The Ludendorff Bridge was a railroad bridge across the Rhine in Germany, connecting the cities of Remagen and Erpel. The bridge is famous for its capture by Allied forces in the Second World War. The bridge was an important strategic point during WWII because it was the only remaining bridge which led over the Rhine River into Germany and Berlin. During Operation Lumberjack, on March 7, 1945, troops of the U.S. Army's 9th Armored Division reached one of the two intact bridges over the Rhine (a railway bridge in Wesel (today NRW) was the other one), after German defenders failed to demolish it, despite several attempts. Sgt. Alexander A. Drabik of Holland, Ohio was the first American soldier to cross the bridge, thereby becoming the first American soldier to cross the Rhine River into Germany; Lt. Karl Timmermann was the first officer over the bridge. By the Allies, this was hailed as the river_1 river_palace Bad_Godesberg Bad Godesberg became a municipal district of Bonn in 1969. It is located in the south of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. From 1949 till 1999 (while Bonn was the capital of (West) Germany), the majority of foreign embassies to Germany were located in Bad Godesberg. Some buildings are still used as embassy branch offices or consulates. [Wikipedia] river_family_barge Families operate Rhein barges. Here you can see they're drying their laundry, and that they travel with their auto. river_hydrofoil Cologne-to-Dusseldorf commuter hydrofoil sister_ship Sister ship to ours Burg_Rheinstein Burg Rheinstein. [From the Web site]: Particularly characteristic of the Rheinland castles is the position on a cliff, 260 ft. above the river. First mentioned in 1279, the castle became the property of the influential archbishop of Trier, Kuno von Falkenstein, in the 14th century. At the begining of the 19th century Prince Friedrich of Prussia acquired the ruins and had them rebuilt in psudo-Gothic style. Rheinstein contains a collection of armour and art treasures of the 16th & 17th century, which is well worth seeing. river_2 Festung_Ehrenbreitstein_in_Koblenz river_poplars_and_swans river_castle_vineyards steep_fortress river_castle_2 river_church WWII_Red_Cross This building was a Red Cross hosiptal in WWII. Loreli_from_Marksburg Loreli Rock from Marksburg Castle. [From Web sites]: The mighty slate rock Lorelei in the Romantic Rhine Valley - around 16 miles/ 25 km from Rudesheim and 50 miles/80 km from Frankfurt airport - rises up almost vertically to 145 yards/132m above the water-level. Downstream the river is squeezed into its narrowest and deepest (24 yards/22m) point, so the Middle Rhine at this point used to be very difficult to navigate and the correct passage is (today) clearly marked with buoys.

Even in the 19th century, reefs and rapids made it extremely dangerous for ships to pass this point. The legend tells us, that a siren called Loreli Marksburg_Castle Crowning the hill is Marksburg Castle, its unusually slender keep towering above the surrounding courts and ramparts. Beginning with the construction of the keep in the 12th century, the castle grew into its present shape throughout succeeding centuries. In the Middle Ages, the strengthening of the castle's defences became essential and urgent by improvements made to firearms. Huge outworks date from this time, as does the conversion of a gateway in the outer wall to a strong bastion. It is mainly due to these extra defence works that the castle was never seriously attacked. In more peaceful times, it was used mainly as a state prison. Marksburg_Castle_from_dock Ruth_at_Marksburg_Castle river_town castle_terraces Burg Pfalzgrafenstein The Pfalz Castle was an ancient toll booth of sorts, and today is probably the most photographed castle on the Rhine. Built in the 13th Century, this castle is on the river bed near the town of Kaub. It, along with the Burg Gutenfels (now a hotel), made the town of Kaub one of the wealthiest on the river. When boats would approach, the castle would raise chains to the opposite bank of the river. If the boat paid a toll, it could pass without a problem. If tolls were refused, the boat would be seized and the crew was put on a raft in the well of the Pfalz castle. Boats that tried to bypass the tolls would be ripped to pieces from the chains and the strong current. [] Mannheim_fountain Mannheim_University Mannheim University river_pastoral Franco_Prussian_War_memorial The memorial to the peace after the Franco-Prussian War (July 19, 1870 – May 10, 1871).
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